[5][8], Other relevant laws for press and media freedom include the Law on State Secret and Law on Copyright and Adjacent Rights. List of free-to-air satellite Georgian television channels. The Georgian blogging community has been growing (Caucasusreports.ge), together with internet forums (Forum.ge) and social media (Facebook.com)[34], Internet-based news media have been slow to appear. [12], Circulation data are not released by publishers. [3], The Law on Broadcasting regulates the allocation of licenses for radio frequencies and set the legal basis for the Georgian Public Broadcaster. The Law on Freedom of Speech and Expression (2004) recognises and protects the right to freedom of expression as an inherent and supreme human value and forbids censorship. Rustavi 2 was twice threatened with closure, the prominent TV anchor Giorgi Sanaia was killed, and several other journalists were attacked. [12], In 2010, there were 502 registered newspapers in Georgia: 376 national ones (registered with the Department of Statistics in Tbilisi) and 126 regional ones. Titles include Sarke, Tbiliselebi, Gza and Raitingi, as well localised versions of international outlets (such as Cosmopolitan Georgia) as well as Tskheli Shokoladi and Liberal (by M-Publishing). Legal cases are rarely brought against journalists in Georgia, but legislation often remains unevenly implemented. [3], Violence and harassment against journalists have been reported in Georgia, particularly during electoral periods. Georgia has many print outlets, but with very limited circulation numbers. - Reporters without borders", "Forbes Georgia Head Quits, Citing Censorship - News", "Statement of NGOs on TV company Maestro", "TV channel scandal sparks censorship fears in Georgia", The Curious Case of Rustavi-2: Protecting Media Freedom and the Rule of Law in Georgia, "OSCE Representative says excessive court measures against television station in Georgia may pose a threat to media pluralism - OSCE", "OSCE Representative warns of implications for media pluralism in Georgia amid ongoing dispute over ownership of Rustavi 2 - OSCE", http://europeanjournalists.org/wp-content/themes/efj/humans.txt, "Georgian TV channel Rustavi 2 faces legal threats", "Media's independence must be respected, OSCE Representative says following court ruling on Rustavi 2 TV in Georgia - OSCE", "Supreme Court decision in Georgia casts blow against media independence and pluralism, OSCE media freedom representative says", "Government of Georgia Fact Sheet on Rustavi 2 Court Case", "Tensions High As Georgians Protest TV Case", "Georgian Media: New Challenges and New Opportunities", "Politically Motivated Self-Censorship? [17], Georgia lacks transparency in private ownership of TV stations, including for the main Rustavi 2 and Imedi stations. This includes information on the size of shareholdings, beneficial owners and people with indirect interests and control. [16], Regional stations include Dzveli Kalaki, Hereti, Harmonia and Atinati (gathered together as the Georgian Radio Network), competing with Tbilisi-based radios for local audiences. The TV channel Rustavi 2, established in 1994, brought editorial freedom on air. One example is the blocking in 2011 of websites hosting a film about the Georgian-Russian war. One of the persisting challenges is the lack of available information about weather media owners hold positions in governmental bodies; indeed, there is not a unique list of government officials and only senior officials are obliged to make a public declaration on their assets.[73]. The Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) operates two radio channels: Sakartvelos Radio – Pirveli Radio and Radio Ori – Kartuli Radio. [5] 2013 amendments universalised the "must carry/must offer" principle, preventing cable operators from politically suppressing certain TV channels from their offers. News ; News By Date ... MAI Georgia is the leading insurance broker on the Georgian insurance intermediation market... Carrefour Supports ‘We Are Here for You’ Social Campaign. Police arrested more than 25 people after ultra-nationalist protesters attempted to derail the premiere of an award-winning movie about gay love. Everyone has the right to freely receive and impart information, to express and impart his/her opinion orally, in writing or by in any other means. The political struggle for control over the public broadcaster left it without a direction in 2014.[3]. History. [4], Government pressures on the free media increased together with their criticism of corruption and abuse of power. Polarisation in the television sector has recently declined, with broadcasters focusing more on competition on contents. [3], Advertisers in Georgia have traditionally favoured pro-governmental media and shunned the print media. Internet penetration in Georgia long remained concentrated in the main towns, due to high prices and lack of landline infrastructure. The GNCC also prevents the formation of monopolies and preserves an equal and fair competitive environment, facilitating the introduction of new technologies. Of these, only 28 Tbilisi-based and 61 peripheral ones had regular publications. Foreign radios that are re-broadcast in Georgia include Radio France International, America's National Public Radio and BBC World on Radio GIPA, and Russia's Europa Plus. [85], Rustavi 2 is the most successful private television broadcasting company in Georgia and accounts for almost half of all revenues in the broadcasting sector, but the only other channel owned by the company is the entertainment station Comedy Channel, so there should be no concentration problems. Art. All but Utsnobi air throughout the country. The burden of proof lies with the initiator of the restriction and not with the involved journalist. [10], In 2010, the OSCE RFoM intervened to recall Georgian journalists of the professional duties they have committed themselves to, after a controversial fake report by Imedi TV, condemning "irresponsible journalism and the impact it may have on media freedom and security". It guarantees the rights of Georgia residents as well as media institutions (newspapers, publishers, and the Public Broadcaster). In 2012 the Georgian Constitutional Court ruled that TV stations would not need a license to broadcast via cable, but only via radio frequencies and satellite.[3].

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